Austria gladly joins the celebration of the 1300th anniversary of Bulgaria

As a Federal President of the Republic of Austria I lengthen my congratulations to the Folks’s Republic of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian individuals on the event of this anniversary that’s so distinctive within the historical past of the nations and I want the Bulgarian individuals within the years to return happiness, each success and peace!

Dr. Rudolf Kirchschlager, Federal President of the Republic of Austria.

TO

TODOR ZHIVKOV, PRESIDENT OF THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA.

I’ve the honour to handle to you, Mr. President of the State Council, and thru you to the Bulgarian individuals, warmest congratulations on this historic event  the 1300th Anniversary of the muse of the Bulgarian state.

Urho Kekkonen, President of the Republic of Finland.

TODOR ZHIVKOV, PRESIDENT OF THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA.

The celebration of the 1300th Anniversary of the muse of the Bulgarian state provides me the nice alternative to ship you, Mr. President, by myself behalf and that of the federal government and the individuals of Spain my pleasant greetings and most honest good needs.

I like the lofty instance of heroism the Bulgarian individuals set earlier than the world throughout their steady and bitter wrestle for nationwide liberation and consolidation.

I avail myself of the chance to ship to Your Excellency and to the Bulgarian individuals my finest needs for well being and happiness.

Juan Carlos I, King of Spain.

TO

TODOR ZHIVKOV, PRESIDENT OF THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA

On the event of the 1300th Anniversary of the muse of the Bulgarian state I lengthen to Your Excellency my honest congratulations and finest needs for prosperity and flourishing of the Bulgarian individuals.

Olav V, King of Norway.

TO

HIS EXCELLENCY MR. TODOR ZHIVKOV, PRESIDENT OF THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA SOFIA.

Mr. President,

On the event of the 1300th anniversary of the muse of the Bulgarian State, I want to lengthen to Your Excellency and to the pleasant Bulgarian individuals my most honest congratulations.

Turkey needs sincerely that neighbouring Bulgaria

Turkey needs sincerely that neighbouring Bulgaria develops in prosperity and happiness and welcomes the progress achieved by the Bulgarian individuals.

On this event, I want to specific as soon as once more my conviction that TurkishBulgarian relations will additional develop in future for the good thing about each international locations and they’ll contribute for the institution of an environment of confidence and cooperation on the Balkans, in addition to in the entire world.

Advertisements

Konstantin Moraviev changed Bagrianov

On September 2, 1944, Konstantin Moraviev changed Bagrianov and his administration. On the morning of September 5, the Soviet consultant appeared earlier than Moraviev to debate the state of affairs. Russia thought of that she had very important pursuits at stake within the Balkans, significantly in regard to the Straits. The Soviet consultant wired his authorities that it was his feeling that the brand new Bulgarian govern¬ment was not totally different from the previous ones. On this foundation, doubtlessly prearranged, Russia declared struggle on Bulgaria with directions to the invading basic, Marshal Tolbukhin, to “bend the neck of the treacherous enemy.” 4 days later, the Russians accepted Bulgaria’s give up, occupying the nation with all of the rights of a conqueror.

The Intervention of the Pink Military

The Moraviev authorities had tried to alter Bulgaria’s pro-German overseas coverage. It declared struggle on Germany on September eight, 1944. The Russians heard of this determination a number of days earlier than it got here to move, and declared struggle on Bulgaria on September 5, earlier than the declaration in opposition to Germany was put in force. Their function was to have a authorized excuse for occupying and subjugating Bulgaria whereas it was technically nonetheless allied with Germany.

After the Pink Military invaded Bulgaria, a coup was staged by the bulgaiian armed forces on September 9, 1944, and a brand new authorities was established. It included representatives of the Bulgarian Nationwide Agraiian Union, the biggest political group within the nation, along with Communists, Social Democrats and minority teams. With a view to facilitate an armistice settlement, the non-Communist components within the authorities had been pressured to comply with the occupation of Bulgaria by the Pink Military. On October 28, 1944, Bulgaria signed in Moscow an armistice settlement with the USA, the UK and the Soviet Union.

Following the Bulgarian coup of September 9, 1944, the Com¬munists, aided and abetted by the Pink Military, began mass executions of their enemies. The victims had been branded as “Fascists.” The Soviet navy authorities and their Bulgarian henchmen step by step gained full management over the Bulgarian Military by purging the officers’ corps of these they termed “Fascist.” This was crucial function of Soviet intervention in Bulgaria. The Bulgarian minister of protection tried to make a distinction between a tiny minority of military officers who had Fascist information and the nice majority whose solely duty was in finishing up their authorities’s directions or obeying the orders of their superiors. The Soviet commander •charged the Bulgarian minister of protection with safety of ’’Fascist officeis and threatened the direct intervention of Soviet armed forces.

 

ALGEMENE OMROEP VERENIGING AVRO

To The Rozhen Monastery

MRS. A. TRITCHKOVA, COMMITTEE OF ART AND CULTURE INSTITUTE OF AMATEUR ARTISTIC ACTIVITIES.

SOFIA  BULGARIA.

Pricey Mrs. Tritchkova,

We wish to offer you our heartiest congratulations on the event of 1300 years Bulgaria.

It has been an incredible pleasure for us right here in Holland to have the ability to take part your festivities on the event of the numerous cultural occasions which were organised right here.

After all for us the Pageant of Bulgarian Dances that we organised in cooperation with the Bulgarian Embassy in The Hague, was the spotlight of these celebrations.

We’re all conscious of the great relations which have developed between our nations. Since so a lot of our members are frequent guests of your stunning nation, we’re additionally in a position to rejoyce us with many buddies that we have now in Bulgaria.

It will be our privilege if we might proceed our good relations and set up new friendships, if we might have a Bulgarian crew visiting us on the event of the Leiden Pageant subsequent 12 months. We are going to write to you in a seperate letter on this matter.

We wish to thanks very a lot for the gorgeous costumes from Store you offered us with on the event of the Festi • val of Bulgarian Dances. I’m delighted to tell you that these costumes are regularly utilized by a number of of our ensembles all through Holland. Even this small manner we hope to contribute to a very good understanding between the Dutch and the Bulgarian folks.

Please settle for our highest needs and warmest congratulations.

Yours ci nee rely,

BULGARIAN ART  AN ENCOUNTER

Bulgaria appears to be extra far-off than it truly is: once I say this I don’t seek advice from the gap in kilometres, nor to the connections  that are glorious by the best way  however slightly to a sense of distance.

Till not too long ago the Balkans, besides Greece and Yougoslavia, had been a territory unknown by many individuals. Contacts of commerce, but additionally tourism have progressively modified this example. The aim of my go to nevertheless, was not a visit to the shores of the Black Sea, however a curiosity in regards to the newest creative developments in Bulgaria. Below the Turkish yoke that lasted in Bulgaria till 1879 creative developments have been hardly in a position to flourish. The Arts have been cultivated and taught within the convents, the place painters and writers continued with the picture of Christian civilisation in opposition to the oppressors. After the warfare of independence Bulgaria was open for influences from overseas. Artists might go and research on the academies of nice artwork in Vienna and Munich; others adopted the developments in Paris with eagerness.

The work by Nikola Petrov, Todorov and Michailov, largely from the interval round 1900 mirror each the influences of western European artwork and an urge for nationwide id. This identical urge is to be discovered within the nice arts of Bulgaria of this specific second. In some cities creative teams are truing to seek out prospects to develop subsequent to the currents from western nations a recognizable artwork of their very own. Vital centres are actually not solely Sofia, but additionally Plovdiv, Varna and Rousse. Some artists till not too long ago sought inspiration in folklore, however the discredit of the so referred to as naives who had began a industrial manufacturing in neighbour nations, provided however little useful resource ultimately. The stimuli for experimental and nonfigurative artwork have been solely few in Bulgaria.

 

Snow falls normally from November to April

Snow falls normally from November to April. At Sofia it snows on a mean 42*2 days within the yr, at Philippopolis 14*eight, at Bourgas 12*eight

As regards moisture and clouds, Bulgaria is midway between the Mediterranean area and Central Europe. The common density of cloud through the yr varies from 5 (at Philippopolis) to five*5 (at Gabrovo). The month of November is the cloudiest (7*9 at Sofia). August is the clearest (2*6 at Bourgas). The common moisture varies from 70 per cent, (at Gabrovo) to 79p.c. (at Bourgas). It diminishes in summer season to 58p.c., and rises to 66p.c. in December. The atmospheric stress reaches its most in summer season at Philippopolis (13*three) and its minimal in January at Gabrovo (three*four).

VEGETATION

On this respect additionally Bulgaria holds a center place between the forests of Central Europe, the steppes of Russia, and the Mediterranean districts. The mountains are lined with forests much like these of Central Europe. Sure areas of the Danube remind one of many Russian steppes, and Southern Bulgaria produces vegetation belonging to the nations of the south of Europe.

Bulgaria was previously, because the memoirs of assorted travellers testify, very wealthy in forests. Sadly an important a part of them have perished in consequence of reckless consumption and prospecting for minerals. What nonetheless stays is within the mountains at a distance from cities and the principal arteries of communication.

The forests of the plains are composed

The forests of the plains are composed mainly of oaks (quercus) of all species. Above 500 metres altitude is discovered the beech (Fagus silvatica), the most common and most essential tree of our mountains. In a large center zone, the oak and the beech develop collectively, the previous overlaying the decrease slopes, the latter the higher slopes. The evergreen oak grows at altitudes exceeding 1,000 metres. Decrease down, with the oak and beech are mingled the hornbeam (Caprinus duincnsis), the elm (Alnus glutinosa) the airplane (Acer pseudoplatanus) and others. Above the beech, within the Rhodopes, and in addition on the Rilo, prolong normally forests of conifers, with the fir (Abies pectinate and Picea excelsa), the pine (Pinus silvestris and Pinus laricio), the Juniperus nana. The beech has in a number of locations pushed out the conifers, which are actually hardly ever to be discovered within the StaraPlanina and within the Ossogovo. Within the fields, in addition to on the slopes of the decrease hills, are discovered, as a substitute of forests, shrubs, brambles and thorns of all types. Probably the most attribute are the groves of lilacs (Syringa vulgaris).

 

THE NUMBER OF STUDENTS

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE NUMBER OF STUDENTS AND THAT OF CHILDREN LIABLE TO PRIMARY INSTRUCTION

Based on the census of 1900, the overall variety of youngsters between the ages of six and twelve years was 670,375, of whom 338,205 had been boys and 332,170 women. It have to be talked about right here that the course of major instruction is 4 years and never six years, because it was earlier than X899. The kids, due to this fact, attend the first colleges not till the age of twelve, however till the age of ten. However, there are kids who solely start to attend faculty on the age of seven. Within the final place, an allowance have to be made for the pupils who stay two years in the identical division.

Taking all this into consideration, will probably be extra right to put the common interval of attendance at 5 years, or, in different phrases, to think about that solely youngsters between the ages of six and eleven are obliged to attend the first colleges. The variety of such youngsters is 554,568, of whom 279,540 are boys and 275,228 women. Of this quantity, as we now have seen, 340,668, particularly 220,620 boys and 120,048 women, have attended the first colleges in the course of the 12 months 19031904. In order that, of the youngsters for whom the attendance of colleges is compulsory, 78 9 per cent, of the boys and 4364 per cent, of the women, or 6143 per cent, of the 2 sexes, have complied with the necessities of the legislation.

THE NUMBER OF STUDENTS AS COMPARED WITH THE TOTAL

POPULATION OF THE PRINCIPALITY

The comparative tables which we now have already given and people which we now suggest to offer will assist the forming of an concept of the extent to which major instruction is unfold over the nation. By adopting this methodology as regards Bulgaria, we arrive on the following conclusions for the 12 months 19031904^

Complete inhabitants of the Principality: three,744,283 inhabitants. Variety of pupils in the course of the 12 months 19031904 : 340,668, or 91 pupils per 100 inhabitants. This proportion of 9*1 per cent, varies with the totally different nationalities. Thus, it’s :

9*9 per cent, for the Bulgarians (Orthodox, Catholic, Protestant, Mahommedans).

eight zero          „              „              for          the         Turks.

68           „              „              for          the         Greeks.

134         „              „              for          the         Jews.

It seems from these figures that, as regards instruction in Bulgaria, the Jews occupy the primary place, and the Greeks the final. It’s only truthful so as to add that, in actuality, the Jews stand even higher than is proven by these figures, a substantial proportion of younger Jews who attend the Bulgarian nationwide colleges not being included within the above statistical tables.

 

THE BUDGET

The State Finances is submitted yearly to the approval of the legislative Meeting. It’s examined by chapters, and the Meeting might not strike out or modify a chapter

with out explaining the explanations which have decided its motion. In circumstances the place the Nationwide Meeting can’t be convoked in time, whereas unavoidable expenditure have to be incurred, the earlier Finances continues in pressure, offered the Nationwide Meeting grants its approval within the nearest session, and topic to the joint accountability of the ministers.

No State mortgage could also be contracted with out the consent of the Nationwide Meeting. If the Authorities finds it crucial to have recourse to a mortgage for the aim of assembly distinctive expenditure whereas the Nationwide Meeting will not be sitting, this latter have to be instantly convoked in extraordinary session. If, nevertheless, there are critical obstacles in the way in which of a right away convocation, the Prince, performing on the recommendation of the Council of Ministers, might authorise a mortgage not exceeding three tens of millions of francs, given that the approval of the Nationwide Meeting be obtained within the nearest session. The Prince may sanction, topic to the identical situations, an expenditure not exceeding a million francs for the aim of assembly wants for which the Finances has made no provision.

The closure of the Finances’s train

The closure of the Finances’s train is effected in advantage of a particular legislation which is handed by the Nationwide Meeting on the finish of the monetary 12 months. On this event, the Minister of Finance presents to the Nationwide Meeting and to the Excessive Courtroom of Accounts a report coping with the monetary state of the nation through the 12 months.

The Excessive Courtroom of Accounts has an unbiased semijudiciary organisation which permits it to train a strict management over the monetary administration of the State. It consists of a president, six councillors, and a large number of reporters and accountants. The president and the councillors are appointed by royal decree on the proposition of the Nationwide Meeting, which alone can revoke them. The Excessive Courtroom of Accounts submits the accounts of the Authorities to a minute examination which is predicated on the gadgets of expenditure, as they’re ready by the Authorities, and on the accounts furnished by the varied spending departments. The Excessive Courtroom of Accounts submits a common report back to the Nationwide Meeting, with whom the ultimate resolution rests.

Due to the measures which have been taken for the development of all branches of agriculture and of the nationwide business, thanks additionally to the gradual improve of the inhabitants, the soundness of the nationwide funds could also be mentioned to have been assured.

 

Geography Of Mountains

The Principality of Bulgaria presents, from the orographical viewpoint, a contented mixture of excessive mountain chains encircling broad and fruitful plains. On the foot of lofty peaks, whose summits typically attain a peak of over 2,000 metres, prolong, so far as eye can see, valleys whose common peak above sealevel is 200 metres.

These figures present’that about 70 per cent, of the full space of Bulgaria consists of land vulnerable of the very best diploma of cultivation.

The typical peak above sealevel of Bulgaria is 425 metres.

The character of the nation is decided by its mountain programs. We might distinguish mainly the next mountain teams: the mass of the Rilo Rhodopes, the lengthy chain of the StaraPlanina, the Danubian tableland, and the transitional belt stretching between the Rilo Rhodopes and the serpentine chain of the Stara Planina.

The Rilo and the Rhodopes current collectively a compact mass whose numerous branches stretch out in all instructions. The chief attribute of those mountains is the massive cliffs all of a sudden cleft by valleys that open out unexpectedly earlier than the traveller’s questioning eye—valleys dotted right here and there with deep swimming pools. The best summits are scorching at all times on the road of the watershed. Right here and there rise nice blocks of igneous rocks. The Rilo is the very best mountain of Bulgaria. A number of peaks exceed 2,700 metres above sealevel, and the Moussalla reaches 2,924 metres. Contemplating the house included between peaks of over 2,700 metres in peak, it have to be recognised that the Rilo is the very best mountain of Jap Europe. Its northern and jap slopes are dotted with quite a few lakes enclosed amongst rocky cliffs and peaks lined with perpetual snow. In a phrase, the Rilo has all of the peculiarities of the Alps.

The Rhodopes are just like the Rilo

The Rhodopes are just like the Rilo on their western aspect; as we advance in direction of the east, their slopes develop steeper and steeper, whereas the peak decreases and their outlines develop an increasing number of undulating. The principal spurs prolong in direction of the north so far as the Bulgarian frontier, and slope down steeply to the fertile plain of the Maritza. The streams flowing from the lakes of Adrianople and Haskovo have divided the Rhodopes on the jap aspect into quite a few plateaux mendacity east and west. The watersheds are 2,000 metres above sealevel. Probably the most noteworthy peaks are the Sutkia (2,187 m.), the Batachki (2,082 m.) and the Tchepelarski Karlik (2,186 m.).