Bulgaria is among the most energetic members of UNESCO

Right now, Bulgaria is among the most energetic members of UNESCO; it steadily will increase its contribution to the actions of this Group, on the premise of its beliefs and of its personal deep conviction within the position of worldwide cooperation for peace, progress and understanding amongst nations.

I really feel completely satisfied, Mr. President of the State Council of the P.R. of Bulgaria, on the event of the 13th centennial of the inspiration of the Bulgarian State, to increase to you, on behalf on UNESCO and in my very own identify, most honest congratulations and warmest greetings for happiness and prosperity of the Bulgarian individuals.

Amadou Mahtar M’Bow, Secretary Common of UNESCO.


In reference to the 1300th Anniversary of the inspiration of the Bulgarian state which supplies the Bulgarian individuals a possibility to have a good time a protracted and wealthy historic and cultural interval His Holiness Pope John II has entrusted me with the fee to convey to Your Excellency His heat needs for the prosperity of your noble individuals and the actual stress He places on the traditional and treasured non secular and cultural heritage bequeathed by the Apostles Cyril and Methodius.

Subscribing to those needs I want to guarantee Your Excellency of my highest consideration.

Cardinal Augustino Casarolli, Secretary of State of the Vatican.



Pricey Comrade Zhivkov,

On the event of the 1300th Anniversary of the inspiration of the Bulgarian state we want to lengthen to you our warmest and brotherly congratulations.

This exceptional anniversary that the communists and your complete Bulgarian individuals are delighted and proud to have a good time, attains an distinctive significance, because it brings collectively your historical past stuffed with hopes and struggles for liberty and independence, tradition and traditions, with the constructing of a brand new, socialist society which has succeeded in elevating to unknown heights the fabric prosperity, tradition, science, social, economical and non secular improvement of the Bulgarian individuals.

Comrade Dolores Ibarruri

Our occasion, Comrade Dolores Ibarruri and I personally be part of the celebration of that jubilee, as we want your individuals, the communists and also you  the chief of the Bulgarian Communist Celebration, to realize new, extra notable successes.

Fur of a leopard  reward from Zimbabve. With brotherly greetings, Dolores Ibarruri, Chairman of the Spanish Communist Celebration.

Santigo Carrillo, Secretary Common of the Spanish Communist Celebration.




The regulation organs of the Principality

The regulation organs of the Principality are as follows : Justices of Peace, Departmental Courts, Courts of Enchantment, and the Supreme Appellate Courtroom. Earlier than the regulation of January 12th, 1904, there existed one other class of courts, which had been known as communal courts. There was once one in every of these courts in each village, judging small disputes between villagers amounting as much as fifty francs in civil circumstances, and twentyfive francs in felony circumstances. These courts consisted of the native mayor as president, and of two municipal councillors appearing as assistant judges. Since 1904, the communal courts have been abolished, and their jurisdiction merged into that of the Justices of Peace.

The Justices of Peace, to the variety of 115, sit within the chief cities of the districts. In a few of the principal cities there are a number of Justices of Peace, their quantity various with the significance of the place. In Sofia there are 5 Justices of Peace, distributed between the assorted quarters of the capital.

The jurisdiction of the Justices of Peace in civil issues is set by the regulation of December 15th, 1891, on Civil Process (articles 1522). It includes all civil and business disputes as much as a thousand francs; disputes about property when the worth doesn’t exceed a thousand francs, and possessory claims no matter the worth of the property concerned. As police courts, the Justices of Peace take care of all infractions and misdemeanours entailing an imprisonment as much as six months, and fines as much as 5 hundred francs.

The choices of the Justices of Peace

The choices of the Justices of Peace in civil disputes are last as much as 100 francs. In all such circumstances, a proper of enchantment on issues of type lies with the District Courtroom. All the opposite choices of the Justices of Peace could also be taken in enchantment earlier than the respective District Courts, which act then as courts of enchantment. Their choices are last, and might solely be taken in enchantment earlier than the Supreme Appellate Courtroom on issues of type.

The Departmental Courts, to the variety of twentythree, sit within the chief cities of the departments, in addition to in a few of the extra vital centres. They type the primary diploma within the judiciary hierarchy, and their jurisdiction is a really in depth one. In line with the tendencies of the regulation, they’ve cognisance of all civil, business, and felony circumstances which don’t fall throughout the jurisdiction of the Justices of Peace or of the Particular Courts. Industrial courts, as distinct establishments, don’t exist within the Principality.


Chronological order Lyudmila Zhivkova

The gathering accommodates in chronological order Lyudmila Zhivkova’s statements, stories, articles and speeches within the 19721980 interval. Most of them have been printed in Bulgarian and international newspapers, magazines and collections, and others have been included as verbatim stories.

Thematically the gathering covers quite a lot of the principal issues of cultural life, which since 1966 has been growing on the idea of the publicState precept, a course of which has given Bulgarian tradition the opportunity of following a real and unique course.

The system of cultural administration has been additional perfected across the nucleus of the publicState precept, which at this stage led to the creation in 1974 of a brand new increased type of group — the nationwide complicated Artwork, Tradition and the Mass Media. The purposiveness and effectiveness of this resolution, new in precept, which has promoted the event and enriched the publicState precept within the administration of cultural processes, creating an ’’open system”, topic to continuous improvement, have been eloquently confirmed by public follow in recent times. The event and realization of all this may be chronologically adopted within the writings of Lyudmila Zhivkova throughout this time period.

The opposite extraordinarily vital issues handled within the supplies printed within the assortment are associated to the nationwide programme for the aesthetical training of the Bulgarian folks. These are issues of the allround and harmonious improvement of the persona, issues of the awakening and realization of the inventive expertise and skills of each man, issues of buying data of the legal guidelines of magnificence, the issue of the unity between the previous, current and future  an issue seen in mild of the celebration of the

1300th anniversary of the founding of the Bulgarian State  in addition to issues of cultural cooperation among the many peoples, and quite a few concrete questions within the religious sphere.

Banner of Peace

Particular notice needs to be made from the gildings of the concepts of the ’’Banner of Peace” Meeting, first held in Sofia in 1979, which the UNO proclaimed Worldwide Yr of the Little one. These concepts are more and more merging into one widespread stream the efforts and endeavours of the creators and the broad public, efforts directed in direction of the conclusion of the everlasting human quest for selfdevelopment and selfperfection. The essence of those concepts is expressed and concentrated within the motto ’’UNITY, CREATIVITY, BEAUTY”, a formulation proposed by Lyudmila Zhivkova.

B.R. Gruner Publishing Co.






Excellency,         Rotterdam, June30th, 1981

We like to specific our heartiest congratulations to the Bulgarian individuals on the event of the 1300th anniversary of the Bulgarian State.

This anniversary implies that Bulgaria is without doubt one of the oldest European States growing via the centuries into the fashionable state as it’s right now.

It have to be a robust and brave those who is ready to maintain collectively via so many ages to construct up their nation into the fashionable and affluent state that Bulgaria is right now.

We sincerely want this nice individuals and their leaders a cheerful and peaceable future and categorical the hope that the nice relationship between each our international locations might proceed for a few years to come back.

Yours faithfully,               Th. A. Jansen,

Rijn Schelde Verolme


Your Excellency,              10 February, 1981

We herewith allow ourselves, from time to time of the 1300 years anniversary of Bulgaria, to give you our honest congratulations. You’ll realise that we, being agency companions in bussiness with Bulgarian export, throughout final 20 years, really feel ourselves extra concerned together with your beautiful nation than others would possibly do.

Due to this fact we actually do hope, that Bulgaria will proceed his progressive improvement to the good thing about all its inhabitants. Wo prefer to stress on this respect that additionally we are going to do our greatest in future to increase our bussiness relations with the varied Bulgarian export firms. This would possibly give us the sensation that we from our half are additionally contributing, how little it is perhaps, to the wellfare of Bulgaria.

Congratulating you as soon as extra, we stay,

sincerely yours,

De Leeuw’s Handels

onderneming N.V.

De Leeuw, President


Your Excellency,              Zoetermeer, September22,1981.

Additionally on behalf of our mom firm, Continental Meals Firm of Puurs, Belgium, I ought to prefer to congratulate the Individuals’s Republic of Bulgaria on its 1300th Anniversary.

We’ve got had the pleasure to work together with your stunning nation by way of Bulgarkonserv over the past 20 years and in that interval we’ve constructed up a really nice relationship.

Beginning with a really reasonable turnover, we’ve achieved collectively a gentle and rising enterprise in varied Bulgarian specialties like jams, marmalades, peeled tomatoes, paprica and so forth.

Our enterprise relation has been appropriately: we went collectively via good occasions and unhealthy occasions. And, as a Dutch expression says (little question the identical expression exists in Bulgaria): ”In troublesome occasions, you get to know your actual buddies”.

This is the reason we’re positive that we will work along with Bulgaria for an extended interval to come back, throughout which we’re going to strenghten our good relationship.

As soon as once more our absolute best needs to your nation and to our quite a few Bulgarian buddies.

With kindest regards, BOAS B.V.,

Th. Th. van Ham, Managing Director.

Separation of powers was fairly unknown

The precept of the separation of powers was fairly unknown. The executive authorities have been on the similar time judiciary organs. The police authorities held the place of assize courts; they judged and executed their selections with none semblance of course of. Public life was virtually nonexistent The customs of the inhabitants have been easy and primitive. There have been no technique of communication, the phrase business was hardly identified, commerce was insignificant, and agriculture fashioned the only real occupation of the “ rayas.” In these situations, and given the low degree of mental and ethical improvement, the absence of a extra excellent political organisation tallied nicely with the final state of issues.

The outline which we’ve got simply given stays to this present day true of the higher a part of the Turkish provinces, and particularly of Macedonia.

Such was the state during which the Russians discovered Bulgaria in 1877. No sooner had they crossed the Danube than their first ideas got to the executive organisation of the nation. There exists on this topic an fascinating report which was ready by the Russian Imperial Commissary in Bulgaria and browse by him earlier than the constituent meeting at Timovo. The duty of remodelling the administration of the nation was entrusted to a particular fee which accompanied the troops and was positioned underneath the authority of the CommanderinChief of the Russian armies.

As early as July seventh, 1877, the Commissary submitted to the approval of the CommanderinChief a scheme for the civil organisation of the sandjaks and kazas of Bulgaria, the respective governors issuing on the similar time orders that the few establishments which had remained from the previous regime ought to proceed in operation.

Within the turmoil of the conflict

Within the turmoil of the conflict, the work of restoration was for atime forgotten. Apart from, the enterprise proved a really troublesome one, whereas the few outcomes which had been obtained have been hardly encouraging. Correctly talking, there might be no query of an actual administrative organisation earlier than the signature of the Treaty of San Stefano. In advantage of one of many clauses of that treaty, Russia appointed a Commissary Normal , with the mandate to organise the civil authorities of Bulgaria.

The selection fell on Prince DondoukoffKorsakoff. He was allowed a interval of two years to perform his job, however this time period was subsequently decreased by the Treaty of Berlin to 9 months. Korsakoff appointed an administrative council, which can be stated to be the earliest vestige of civil authorities within the Principality after the conflict. The council consisted of six members, who have been positioned on the head of the next departments: Commissary’s chancery and diplomatic correspondence, navy affairs, inside, justice, finance, and public instruction and religions. Northern Bulgaria was provisionally divided into sixteen departments which, of their flip, have been subdivided into thirtytwo districts.

By sustaining issues of their precise place

The English commissioner may certainly threaten in excessive circumstances with the displeasure of his authorities, however all that it was doable for me to do was to symbolize that the Porte was sincerely desirous of restoring order, and that by sustaining issues of their precise place the officers have been rendering a disservice to their very own Authorities. In excessive circumstances it grew to become obligatory to acquire the great places of work of the American Minister, in addition to of the Russian Ambassador, with the authorities at Constantinople.

I judged it higher to speak with my Minister by sending him open telegrams, stating precisely the info, and what was finest to do, so that the Turkish authorities, who learn each telegram earlier than it was delivered, may need the benefit of complying with any request earlier than it was truly made. I’ve each motive to imagine that it was owing to the representations made by British and Russian Embassies and by the American Legation to the Porte that the higher variety of the untried political prisoners have been launched, new judicial fee was shaped, and that about 200 folks already sentenced to loss of life had their sentences commuted. Horses and oxen in addition to agricultural implements have been restored, and on the finish of our six weeks’ work the situation of the inhabitants was vastly superior to that during which we discovered it.

Going past and out of doors

I totally admit that, as far as I used to be involved, I used to be, in so performing, going past and out of doors of my directions; however it was a case the place it was unimaginable for any man with human emotions to have carried out in a different way, and I had the satisfaction of realizing that my conduct was authorised and supported each by the Minister at Constantinople and the federal government at dwelling. I used to be even afterward thanked by Turkish officers for stopping them from performing in order to lose their locations.

The results of the official reviews of Mr. Baring, of Prince Tser ebelef, the Russian consulgeneral at Philippopolis, who accompanied me throughout a portion of my investigation, and of the opposite consuls, was convention of European powers lastly met in Constantinople within the autumn so as to contemplate some scheme for the higher authorities of the Bulgarian provinces.


Treaty of Berlin positioned on the Turkish Authorities

It’s true that the Treaty of Berlin positioned on the Turkish Authorities the duty of giving to those provinces additionally a sure diploma of liberty. A draft of reforms was even ready in 1880; ‘.but it surely’remained such, and Macedonia continues to be what it was earlier than the RussoTurkish Warfare.

Just a little greater than 1 / 4 of a century has elapsed since these occasions.

In Russia, in addition to in Bulgaria, this primary anniversary has been celebrated with nice solemnity. It’s to be hoped that earlier than very lengthy it would have one other echo with the inauguration of the monument raised in Sofia by a grateful nation to the Tzar Liberator.

Bulgaria has, subsequently, had an impartial existence of some twentyfive years. And but, what a distinction between the previous Turkish province and the current Principality I The place distress and devastation reigned earlier than, a flourishing nation extends now, stuffed with power and promise. Within the place of the previous oppressed “ rayas,” in the present day there’s a younger nation whose aptitude for progress, for the sciences and business, has been already proved. New cities have sprung up, railways traverse the territory in all instructions, effectively maintained public roads join the smallest villages, telegraph traces present at each step the work of civilisation. Harbours inbuilt conformity with modem necessities are opening to Bulgaria vistas for the event of her maritime commerce. Shut upon a milliard francs have been spent upon these varied public works, however what deserves our particular discover will not be the magnitude of the outlay, however the immense quantity of power displayed, systematically and with a neverflagging zeal, throughout this quarter of a century, within the face of obstacles and difficulties, as a way to attain the extent of European tradition.

Not solely the political circumstances

All the things had to get replaced. It isn’t solely the political circumstances which have altered, however social life itself. At a second’s discover, and virtually out of nothing, a brand new administration needed to be organised and the various organs of the nationwide life to be improvised. Hardly something of the previous regime was or may very well be utilised. On this connection, it’s fascinating to look at the totally different fortunes of a conquered province. When a province which had fashioned a part of a civilised nation passes to a nation equally civilised, one could say that in lots of respects the. change is an unimportant one, as a result of in such a case the conqueror retains nearly all of the establishments, the one distinction being that sooner or later they work within the identify of the brand new sovereign authority.